tagged w/ LHC
An entirely new type of particle has been discovered by scientists using the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), near Geneva, Switzerland.
The discovery of the new particle, called “neutral Xi_b^star baryon,” was made by the CMS experiment, one of six separate particle physics experiments running at the LHC. It was announced Friday by Symmetry Magazine.
“Besides helping to understand how quarks bind and therefore further validate the theory of strong interactions, one of the four basic forces of physics, this measurement represents a tour-de-force that opens up good perspectives for future discoveries,” wrote Carlos Lourenco, a senior researcher with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the organization that oversees the experiments at the giant accelerator, in an email to TPM.
The new type of particle is so rare that it cannot occur anywhere else on Earth outside of the accelerator, and only occasionally in outer space.
(click on the link for the complete article)An entirely new type of particle has been discovered by scientists using the... more
The most coveted prize in particle physics – the Higgs boson – may have been glimpsed, say researchers reporting at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva.
CERN - LHC Control Room
The particle is purported to be the means by which everything in the Universe obtains its mass.
Scientists say that two experiments at the LHC see hints of the Higgs at the same mass, fuelling huge excitement.
But the LHC does not yet have enough data to claim a discovery.
Finding the Higgs would be one of the biggest scientific advances of the last 60 years. It is crucial for allowing us to make sense of the Universe, but has never been observed by experiments.
This basic building block of the Universe is a significant missing component of the Standard Model – the “instruction booklet” that describes how particles and forces interact.
The Higgs Boson
The Higgs boson
The Higgs is a sub-atomic particle that is predicted to exist, but has not yet been seen
It was proposed as a mechanism to explain mass by six physicists, including Peter Higgs, in 1964
It imparts mass to other fundamental particles via the associated Higgs field
It is the last missing member of the Standard Model, which explains how particles interact
Two separate experiments at the LHC – Atlas and CMS – have been conducting independent searches for the Higgs. Because the Standard Model does not predict an exact mass for the Higgs, physicists have to use particle accelerators like the LHC to systematically look for it across a broad search area.
At a seminar at Cern (the organisation that operates the LHC) on Tuesday, the heads of Atlas and CMS said they see “spikes” in their data at roughly the same mass: 124-125 gigaelectronvolts (GeV).
“The excess may be due to a fluctuation, but it could also be something more interesting. We cannot exclude anything at this stage,” said Fabiola Gianotti, spokesperson for the Atlas experiment.
Guido Tonelli, spokesperson for the CMS experiment, said: “The excess is most compatible with a Standard Model Higgs in the vicinity of 124 GeV and below, but the statistical significance is not large enough to say anything conclusive.
“As of today, what we see is consistent either with a background fluctuation or with the presence of the boson.”
Prof Rolf-Dieter Heuer, director-general of Cern, told BBC News: “Such signals can come and go… Although there is correspondence between the two experiments, we need more solid numbers.”
None of the spikes seen by the experiments is at much more than the “two sigma” level of certainty.
Statistics of a ‘discovery’
Particle physics has an accepted definition for a “discovery”: a five-sigma level of certainty
The number of standard deviations, or sigmas, is a measure of how unlikely it is that an experimental result is simply down to chance rather than a real effect
Similarly, tossing a coin and getting a number of heads in a row may just be chance, rather than a sign of a “loaded” coin
The “three sigma” level represents about the same likelihood of tossing more than eight heads in a row
Five sigma, on the other hand, would correspond to tossing more than 20 in a row
Unlikely results can occur if several experiments are being carried out at once – equivalent to several people flipping coins at the same time
With independent confirmation by other experiments, five-sigma findings become accepted discoveries
A level of “five sigma” is required to claim a discovery, meaning there is less than a one in a million chance the data spike is down to a statistical fluke.
Another complicating factor is that these tantalising hints consist only of a handful of events among the billions of particle collisions analysed at the LHC.
Professor Rolf-Dieter Heuer, director-general of Cern told BBC News: “We can be misled by small numbers, so we need more statistics,” but added: “It is exciting.”
If it exists, the Higgs is very short-lived, quickly decaying – or transforming – into more stable particles. There are several different ways this can happen, which provides scientists with different routes to search for the boson.
Large Hadron Collider - CERN
They looked at particular decay routes for the Higgs that produce only a handful of events, but have the advantage of having less background noise in the data. This background noise consists of random combinations of events, some of which can look like Higgs decays.
Other decay modes produce more events – which are better for statistical certainty – but also more background noise. Prof Heuer said physicists were “squeezed” between these two options.
Prof Stefan Soldner-Rembold, from the University of Manchester, called the quality of the LHC’s results “exceptional”, adding: “Within one year we will probably know whether the Higgs particle exists, but it is likely not going to be a Christmas present.”
The simple fact that both Atlas and CMS seem to be seeing a data spike at the same mass has been enough to cause enormous excitement in the particle physics community.
http://rencadesign.com/wp/2011/12/higgs-boson-god-particle-close/#.TueYWGO5Ou8The most coveted prize in particle physics – the Higgs boson – may have... more
For the first time in, well, ever, the Higgs boson - the Rolls Royce of mass-embuing theoretical particles - may have just reared its hypothetical, hotly debated little head.
Heavy emphasis on 'may'.For the first time in, well, ever, the Higgs boson - the Rolls Royce of mass-embuing... more
A leaked internal memo at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland, contains unconfirmed reports that one of the detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has picked up signals that could be the long sought after Higgs boson or God particle. If so, that would be an enormous coincidence at Easter.
One of the main scientific goals of the world's largest atom smasher, costing some 9 billion dollars, is to prove the existence of the Higgs boson or God particle, which makes the universe possible by giving mass to everything including all of us and the objects we can touch!
Rumours that scientists working on the LHC have found evidence of the Higgs boson have begun to circulate after parts of the internal memo were posted on the internet. The leaked note suggests that the ATLAS particle-detection experiment may have picked up a signature of the elusive Higgs particle. Despite the official caution from CERN and other nuclear physicists, there is intense speculation on internet blogs and scientific websites that the results described in the memo signal the first discovery of the Higgs boson.
(more at link)A leaked internal memo at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland, contains unconfirmed reports... more
This is exciting but can this really happen? US researchers believe they are one step closer to creating time travel. Researchers from the Vanderbilt University said that they believe they could use the Large Hadron Collider to send types of matter called the Higgs matter into the past.
Researchers say this theory does have a down side that they are unsure if Higgs particle or also called as Higgs singlet actually exists and if the machine can produce it. According to a report by AP, the LHC is supposed to create the Higgs Boson particle and if it does that the Higgs singlet may also appear. Higgs Boson is also called the God Particle but was never supposed to be there without its Singlet.
Scientists say that the singlet may be able to jump through space and time and travel through a hidden dimension and re-enter our dimension forward or backward in time. Graduate fellow Chui Man said that using a singlet to travel through time avoids all the major paradoxes which include things such as things that will let you travel through time and change things in the past.
However Scientists said that time travel was limited and it might not be possible atleast in near future for man to be able to travel back in time. Simple tasks such as sending SMS Text messages into past can be achieved with the singlet.
http://bit.ly/fzM6e0This is exciting but can this really happen? US researchers believe they are one step... more
LHC is giving out some amazing results. We had reported earlier how physicists from the ALICE detector team have been colliding lead nuclei together at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Some results were out today that showed that the quark-gluon plasma created at these ...
http://bit.ly/eKJNAyLHC is giving out some amazing results. We had reported earlier how physicists from... more
GENEVA (Reuters) - Scientists at the CERN research center say their "Big Bang" project is going beyond all expectations and the first proof of the existence of dimensions beyond the known four could emerge next year.
In surveys of results of nearly 8 months of experiments in their Large Hadron Collider (LHC), they also say they may be able to determine by the end of 2011 whether the mystery Higgs particle, or boson, exists.
Guido Tonelli, spokesman for one of the CERN specialist teams monitoring operations in the vast, subterranean LHC, said probing for extra dimensions -- besides length, breadth, height and time -- would become easier as the energy of the proton collisions in it is increased in 2011.
Other CERN physicists say the success so far of the world's largest scientific project suggests that some great enigmas of the universe they have in their sights could be at least partly resolved much sooner than they thought.
"One year ago, it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly," said Fabiola Gionotti, spokeswoman for another research team in the surveys, issued on CERN's website (www.cern.org).
RESULTS ALL THE TIME
"We are producing new results all the time," she added. The existence or otherwise of the Higgs, never yet spotted but believed to provide the glue giving mass to matter, should be settled one way or another by the end of next year.
The $10 billion LHC, whose operation and monitoring involves scientists and research centers in 34 countries, went into full operation on March 31, smashing protons together at near the speed of light with increasing energy.
These collisions have been creating millions of simulations of the Big Bang which 13.7 billion years ago brought into existence the primordial universe from which stars, planets and life on earth -- and perhaps elsewhere -- eventually emerged.
The LHC operations have been so trouble-free that at the start of this month CERN scientists were able to switch to colliding lead ions, creating temperatures a million times hotter than at the heart of the Sun.
The ion collisions, creating an amalgam dubbed a quark-gluon plasma, give the research teams another way of looking at what happened within a nano-second of the Big Bang and at the first matter produced by that mighty explosion.
CERN scientists say they have already taken research with ions further than those with gold at the long-established Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the U.S. Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island.
These experiments have shown the power of the link-up of 140 computing centers around the world known as the Grid which processes the vast amounts of information that ion collisions produce.
On December 6, the LHC will be shut down for servicing and to avoid draining electricity in the depths of winter from the energy networks of France and Switzerland along whose border CERN lies.
It will start up again in February, then run at full blast, with protons, until the end of the year, when it will close down again until 2013 while engineers prepare it for running at double the energy to the end of the decade and beyond.GENEVA (Reuters) - Scientists at the CERN research center say their "Big... more
LHC is reporting some major developments today. The latest report said that The Large Hadron Collider has successfully created a "mini Big-Bang". This was done by smashing together lead ions instead of protons as it was done earlier. ...
http://bit.ly/d56cOlLHC is reporting some major developments today. The latest report said that The Large... more
Time Machine Built In Europe? Russian Physicists Say Large Hadron Collider Can Be Time Machine At Full PowerRussian physicists seriously believe that the Large Hadron Collider can be used for time travel. However, it will only happen when it starts working at full capacity and stops breaking down.
If earlier time travel was considered science fiction, now it suddenly turned into the favorite pet project of theoretical physicists. Renowned physicist Kip Thorne of the California Institute of Technology once said in one of his lectures:
“Once upon a time, time travel was the exclusive prerogative of writers. Serious scientists were shunning it like the plague, even when they were writing novels under a pseudonym or were secretly reading them. The times have changed! Now in serious scientific journals you can find a scientific analysis of time travel, authored by outstanding theoretical physicists. Why this change? Physics simply understood that the nature of time is too important to give it to the mercy of writers.”
Today, there are many different schemes of devices designed for time travel. The main one is the Large Hadron Collider. It was launched in the fall of 2008. This is the most powerful particle accelerator in history located on the border of Switzerland and France. In its 27-kilometer ring scientists are trying to collide beams of protons accelerated to nearly light speed. As expected, this device will provide new information about particles and forces acting in space, as well as will reproduce conditions that existed immediately after the Big Bang gave birth to the universe.
Russia Today: LHC's little brother to beam near Moscow
After launching the collider, people were scared of the giant black hole capable of swallowing the Earth. Yet, scientists quickly calmed the population saying that in case of a collision of particles in the collider, the holes that may appear would be microscopic, or so large that they can be used as a handy tool for time travel.
This sensational proposal was made by two doctors of physical and mathematical sciences, Professors of Institute of Mathematics named after Steklov, Irina Arefyeva and Igor Volovich.
“Modern principles of theoretical mathematical physics allow the possibility of time travel,” explains Volovich, a member of RAS. “One of the admissible models of working time machine is the so-called wormhole, that is, a space-time tunnel leading to another time or space. And the probability of formation of a wormhole in the LHC is comparable to the probability of occurrence of the black hole itself, which can occur when particles collide with high energy.
As explained by the physics, wormhole is a tunnel connecting different parts of space and time. Entrance to the tunnel may be the size of a star, a planet, a house and even a speck of dust, depending on a purpose of the tunnel use. After all, there is a difference between sending a photon or a group of tourists. You can get to another galaxy, or another universe. And you can also get into in the past. In terms of the physical properties, the entrance to the wormhole is very similar to the entrance to the black hole. The difference is that you can come back.
Since the LHC is designed, figuratively speaking, to create a part of space on Earth, then it can be used to obtain dark energy. This is also an important detail of creating the miracle machine. Another necessary condition for making the machine work is to distort space and time so it closes up in a ring. And the LHC is quite capable of that.
“This phenomenon in physics is called “closed time-like curve,” explains Professor Arefyeva. “It allows, at least theoretically, returning to the past.”
“Is it possible to have a paradox described by Bradbury, when a traveler caught in the past accidentally steps on a butterfly, which results in coming to power of a different president in his time? “
“We expected such issues,” says professor Volovich. “We came to this conclusion: time travel may change the course of history, but not very significantly.”
To make time machine the reality, the scientists stress the need for the LHC to reach at least the design capacity (now it is working at half capacity) and stop breaking down.
“So far, our biggest home is that the LHC will demonstrate the existence of wormhole. If some of the collision energy in the collider disappears, this can be explained by the creation of particles that pierce time through wormholes.”
Research and Development Center of the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), promised that the LHC will start working as expected in September. Then it becomes clear whether Russian physicists were right in their solution of the most intriguing problem of mankind.
http://english.pravda.ru/science/tech/06-08-2010/114515-time_machine-0/Russian physicists seriously believe that the Large Hadron Collider can be used for... more
"1st extinction event: Leaked CERN documents state LHC has 70% chances to produce ‘ice-9′ strangelets on 11/9."
I'm not a science major so I don't know how worried I should be about this, post up your thoughts below!
http://www.cerntruth.com/?p=125"1st extinction event: Leaked CERN documents state LHC has 70% chances to produce... more
We have an LHC update. Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) reported on Tuesday that they have discovered a previously unobserved phenomenon during one of the routine collisions. The resulting discovery indicated that particles are linked together in a way that was never seen before in a proton collision.
Scientists first noted the new discovery in the mid of July. Physicist Guido Tonelli, a CERN scientist said, “We have today submitted a paper to expose our findings to the wider community”. The new phenomenon showed up as a ridge-like structure on the mapping graphs based on data from billions of proton collisions. It was part of one of six experiments around the accelerator. MIT physicist Gunther Roland who is an author for the paper submitted described the latest observation as “a subtle effect in a complex environment which needs careful work to establish its physical origin.”
http://bit.ly/a1uJ0EWe have an LHC update. Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) reported on... more
Today, the scientists running the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider reported some of the first signs of unexpected physics happening at the LHC. After tracking the particles that have spilled out of some collisions, the CMS collaboration has detected a correlation among the angles at which many of them escape the collision. This sort of behavior has been seen before, but only in heavy ion collisions, and the initial report is cautious about trying to draw a specific connection between the two. But, if the results hold up, they may tell us something about the internal structure of the proton, and where most of its mass comes from.
Heavy ion collisions, like those produced in Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, cause the particles that normally inhabit the nucleus to break down. Instead of a collection of protons and neutrons, their internal components—quarks and gluons—exist in a fluid-like state that is termed a quark-gluon plasma. This plasma is short lived, but it lasts long enough for the particles that fly out of it engage in interactions that link the angles at which they exit the plasma.Today, the scientists running the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron... more
We all are well aware of the Large Hadron Collider which physicists and astronomers expect will answer the most basic questions about the universe and how matter came ..
http://bit.ly/dqyFUpWe all are well aware of the Large Hadron Collider which physicists and astronomers... more
Scientists ask particles to walk a straight line
One of the most expensive and ambitious pieces of scientific equipment in mankind's history, the Large Hadron Collider, has set records, but been fraught with problems. Now, even as operations and analysis of the $9B USD collider start to get back on course, scientists are developing a new collider that will deliver more precise measurements and new insights into the fundamental building blocks of the universe.
The International Linear Collider (ILC) as proposed would stretch 31 kilometers (19 miles, versus the 17-mile circumference of the LHC), with 14,000 electron-positron collisions per second at 500 GeV. That would essentially make it a linear version of the LHC and the world's largest linear collider by far, surpassing the 2-mile-long, 50 GeV Stanford Linear Accelerator.
The new collider will provide unique advantages when colliding electrons and positrons (anti-electrons), which are much lighter than the protons used in the LHC. Circular colliders like the LHC are valuable in that there's no waste of particles -- particles in the beam that "miss" colliding the first time spin back around and eventually will connect. The downside is that by traveling a circular track, the precision of measurements is reduced due to synchrotron radiation, which worsens as the particles get smaller. This means that circular accelerators are best suited for large particles like proton beams.
Linear colliders like the ILC offer a straight shot. If some particles miss, they will be lost. However, the particles will be delivered at full energy, allowing for collisions of smaller particles like the electron-positron pair at a higher level of measurement.
The ILC will use new superconducting radio frequency technology devices recently developed to create these energy levels. Traditionally, accelerators used copper RF cavities that are readily fabricated but suffer large power losses due to induced surface currents. These new superconducting cavities reduce the energy losses to nearly zero. Approximately 16,000 superconducting accelerating cavities made of pure niobium will be used, operating at 2 K (-271.2 °C or -456 °F).
The device is competing with a separately planned CERN linear accelerator dubbed the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The CLIC would be much shorter, but much higher energy. Whereas the ILC would offer electron beams of 500 GeV, with an upgrade option to 1 TeV, the CLIC would offer basic beam strength of 3 TeV, with an upgrade option to 5 TeV (by contrast the LHC offers beam strength of 7 TeV for a proton beam).
The problem with the CLIC is feasibility. An immense alternating electric field is necessary to sustain the powerful, compact design. Current technology falls short of being able to produce and safely utilize such a field. The ILC, on the other hand, is less of a dramatic departure from previous designs.
CERN researcher and Director of the Accélérateur Linéaire Laboratory at Orsay (LAL), Guy Wormser will present at the International Conference on High Energy Physics today in Paris about the new design. He states to the UK's Mail Online, "[W]e made a machine which allowed us to make a big leap in understanding, a sort of enlightener, and now we study and detail things and that's the linear collider. It's the future of our discipline."
Regardless of which design is ultimately selected and funded -- the ILC or CLIC -- CERN almost certainly hopes to avoid public relations nightmares like the over-year-long shutdown and $40M USD that the LHC endured. However, when venturing into unexplored territory mistakes are bound to occur. One can only hope they are met with understanding from the public that is ultimately funding these devices, via taxes.
There are large numbers of spin-off technologies involved that will be commercialized. A new generation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) machines use of medical imaging could be developed, while the large area particle detection systems developed for ILC experiments could provide an effective technology for cargo container inspections either through X-ray excitation or using naturally occurring cosmic radiation.
Although scientists working for CERN are also taking an active role in the ILC project, it is by no means solely a CERN project. Nearly 300 laboratories and universities around the world are involved in the ILC project. Over 700 people are working on the accelerator design itself, while another 900 people are working on detector development.
The U.S. is contributing 10-20% of the estimated $12 billion+ cost, but Japan, China, India and Russia are likely to join the EU as partners. The location of the ILC has not yet been decided, but Fermilab in Illinois is a contender, along with other sites in Japan, Germany, Switzerland and Russia.
The proposal for the ILC came together from three projects: the Next Linear Collider (NLC), the Global Linear Collider (GLC), and the Teraelectronvolt Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA).
The current Technical Design Phase (TDP) is producing a technical design of the project in order to demonstrate its feasibility to all involved governments so the ILC can be approved and eventually built. The Technical Design Report (TDR) will be released at the end of 2012, with construction targeted for completion by 2020.
Lets all hope Obama follows in Clinton's foot steps and encourages science by getting them to build the next collider here!Scientists ask particles to walk a straight line One of the most expensive and... more
Rumours are emerging from the rival to the Large Hadron Collider that the Higgs boson, or so-called "God particle", has been found.
Tommaso Dorigo, a physicist at the University of Padua, has said in his blog that there has been talk coming out of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, that the Higgs has been discovered.
The Tevatron, the huge particle accelerator at Fermi - the most powerful in the world after the LHC - is expected to be retired when the CERN accelerator becomes fully operational, but may have struck a final blow before it becomes obsolete.
If one form of the rumour is to be believed - and Prof Dorigo is extremely circumspect about it - then it is a "three-sigma" signature, meaning that there is a statistical likelihood of 99.7 per cent that it is correct. But, of course, that is only if the rumour is to be believed.
In the post, titled "Rumors about a light Higgs", Prof Dorigo said: "It reached my ear, from two different, possibly independent sources, that an experiment at the Tevatron is about to release some evidence of a light Higgs boson signal.
"Some say a three-sigma effect, others do not make explicit claims but talk of a unexpected result."
While media attention has been focusing on the LHC, the Tevatron has been quietly plugging away in the search for Higgs. In the 27 years since it was first completed (it has been regularly upgraded since then) it has discovered a quark and observed four different baryons. While it has not been able to pinpoint the elusive Higgs, it has narrowed the search, reducing the window of possible masses where it might be found.
Last year, Fermi physicists said they expected to have enough data to find or rule out the Higgs by early next year, and gave themselves a fifty-fifty chance of finding it before the end of 2010.
The Higgs boson is the last of the particles posited by the standard model of particle physics still to be found. It is said to explain why other particles have mass, and its discovery would confirm the standard model. If its existence is ruled out altogether, then other, previously less popular theories will have to be examined.
New Scientist suggests that more may be known this month, when scientists present their findings at the International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP), which opens in Paris on 22 July.Rumours are emerging from the rival to the Large Hadron Collider that the Higgs boson,... more
Pictures and history about CERN
A man has been arrested at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland who made claims that he was from the future. A potential ...
http://itgrunts.com/2010/06/02/yikes-man-from-the-future-arrested-at-large-hadron-collider/A man has been arrested at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland who made claims... more
Two theoretical physicists in the College of Liberal Art and Sciences and their colleagues are eager for the results of an experiment scheduled next fall at the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland.
If the experiment confirms their work, it could change the way scientists think about protons, the positively charged particles that, along with neutrons, make up the nucleus of an atom.
Munir Islam, professor emeritus and research professor of physics, and Richard Luddy, research professor in the physics department who received his Ph.D. here in 2006, and two European colleagues have reported a model of the structure of the proton.
The structure of the proton is not yet known. If their model is confirmed by the LHC experiment, it will be a major step forward in our understanding of the proton, the physicists say.
How small is the proton they are studying? So small that it will be “seen” not visually, but virtually, the scientists explain. Its size is described by 14 zeros followed by one to the right of a decimal point, “a millionth of a billionth” of a meter.
The LHC went online in November 2009 after an interrupted start-up in 2008. Just this week, it “smashed” its first protons, or achieved its first proton-proton collisions.
The experiments in Switzerland bring together protons, among the tiniest of particles, and the LHC, the world’s largest scientific instrument and highest energy particle collider. The LHC is located at CERN, the European Center for Nuclear Research, near Geneva.
The proton model that Islam has worked on for more than 30 years shows a proton with three layers. Confined in its core are three quarks, or point-like subatomic particles, surrounded by two rings of “clouds.” The ring closest to the core has what the physicists describe as an exotic charge, a “baryonic charge.” The outer cloud ring is composed of quarks and anti-quarks in a condensed state.Two theoretical physicists in the College of Liberal Art and Sciences and their... more