tagged w/ well
"Those who do not know their history are doomed to repeat it"
From the book “Salt-A World History” by Mark Kurlansky, Publisher Penguin Books Regarding Cheshire Salt Mines near Liverpool England (1800′s to early 1900′s.)
[P. 321-324] “The strange sinkholes that had been sporadically appearing in the eighteenth century had become…a regular phenomenon….The brine makers tried to continue blaming the sinkholes on the rock salt miners, … it became obvious that the location of the sinkholes bore no relation to the locations of mine shafts, and as sinking became more frequent, there were not enough shafts to explain the number of occurrences.
On the other hand there was an exact correlation between the increase in brine production and the increase in sinkholes…By 1880 400 buildings had been destroyed or damaged in Northwich alone.”
“The truth was too much brine was being pumped from underneath Cheshire … as brine was removed, fresh groundwater took its place, and this water would absorb salt until the brine was once again one-fourth salt.
The problem was that if large quantities of freshwater that hungrily absorbed considerable amounts of salt were removed, they were replaced with large quantities of freshwater that hungrily absorbed considerable amounts of salt. Once that started happening, the freshwater began eroding the natural salt pillars that supported the space between the salt rock and the surface. When a pillar collapsed, the earth above it sank.
But even in the nineteenth century, when this process was understood, it was difficult to know whom to blame. The area around a saltworks might remain solid even though the brine it was pumping was causing the earth to collapse four miles away. Two or three other saltworks, though closer to the hole than the culprit, might have caused no damage at all.” [The book also has a bit of info on nuclear waste storage in salt domes on pg. 439] “"Those who do not know their history are doomed to repeat it" From the... more
In the pictures you will see the beautiful city of San Francisco made of nothing but jelly. This is the brain child of Liz Haycock and you cannot but be impressed by the myriad of colors and the pain that must have gone into this huge project. http://www.grabi.co.cc/index.php/novosti/off/31353-san-francisco-made-of-jellyIn the pictures you will see the beautiful city of San Francisco made of nothing but... more
...creates the sound of many ricochet bullets. Interesting effect.
The exposure of 77 million Bangladeshis (half of the country's population) to toxic levels of arsenic over the past several decades has potentially killed or shortened the lives of millions.
How did this happen? In the...
http://talkingskull.com/article/largest-mass-poisoning-in-human-historyThe exposure of 77 million Bangladeshis (half of the country's population) to... more
A key safety device known as the blowout preventer used in the BP oil rig in the Gulf had a hydraulic leak and other problems that likely prevented it from working as designed, congressional investigators said Wednesday.
They also said BP PLC and other documents also indicated confusion over whether poor pipe integrity was allowing methane gas to leak into the well just hours before the explosion that killed 11 workers and blew the well open.
Rep. Henry Waxman, D-Calif., said that BP had informed his House committee that at some point when the well was being closed with cement an influx of methane entered the wellhead, indicating that cementing the well had not produced needed pipe integrity.
Waxman, opening a hearing into the April 20 well explosion that unleashed a massive oil spill, said while "we have far more questions than answers" it appeared clear â€” from BP and other documents â€” that there were problems with the blowout preventers before the accident and confusion almost right up to the time of the explosion over the success of the cementing process.
The committee said that there were at least "four significant problems with the blowout preventer" used on the Deepwater Horizon drill rig.
Rep. Bart Stupak, D-Mich., said that a 2001 report by Transocean, which made the device, indicated there can be as many as 260 failure possibilities in the equipment. The device is supposed to be the final safeguard against a well blowout by clamping down and sealing a gushing oil well.
"How can a device that has 260 failure modes be considered fail-safe?" asked Stupak.
The House Energy and Commerce Committee was to hear from executives of BP, Transocean Ltd, Halliburton, which conducted the cementing on the BP rig, and Cameron Inc.
Stupak said BP confirmed in documents that a leak had been found in the hydraulic system that provides emergency power to a part of the blowout preventer.
When a remote underwater vehicle tried to activate the safety device a loss of hydraulic pressure was detected, said Stupak. When dye was injected "it showed a large leak coming from a loose fitting," said Stupak, citing BP documents.
He said Cameron officials had told the committee the leak was not believed to have been caused by the blowout because other fittings in the system were tight.
Stupak that BP also confirmed that the blowout preventer had been modified so that one of its ram drivers could be used for routine testing and was no longer designed to activate in an emergency. He said after the spill BP "spent a day trying to use this ... useless test ram.A key safety device known as the blowout preventer used in the BP oil rig in the Gulf... more
This once sleepy aboriginal community, 20 kilometres south of last week's oilfield bombings, is now criss-crossed by pipelines and main street has turned into a highway. There are five wellsites within the two-kilometre-square community and a sour gas separating plant just four kilometres north.
This once sleepy aboriginal community, 20 kilometres south of last week's... more