tagged w/ Agrobacterium tumefaciens
A BACTERIUM, which the biotech industry uses as a vehicle to insert foreign genes in plants, can alter the genetic makeup of other life forms like fungi in the environment, shows a research by UK scientists. This is a way, apart from cross pollination, modified genes could escape into the environment, said the researchers. They call for considering the finding during the risk assessment of bacteria-mediated genetically modified (GM) plants.
The soil bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, causes a tumour, crown gall, in plants. As it infects, it triggers the secretion of a hormone, acetosyringone, in the plant and transfers its genetic material into the plant cell, causing tumours. Scientists know which section of the bacterium’s DNA gets transferred during the infection.
They remove disease- causing gene from the section, replace it with new or synthetic gene, and expose the modified bacterium to a plant cell in the presence of acetosyringone, thus generating GM plants like Bt cotton and Bt brinjal. The sturdy modified bacterium can survive within the plant.
Previous studies showed the modified bacterium can also alter genes of living forms like human cells and fungi, but only in the lab where it is supplied with sufficient acetosyringone. No study was done to show if the transformation is possible in the wild. Claire Knight, a research student at University of Bristol in the UK, found such transformation is also possible in the natural environment.
She studied various plants grown in the lab and found plant wound sites produce enough acetosyringone to enable the bacterium transfer its genes to a commonly found fungal pest, Verticillium albo-atrum. Gary Foster, Knight’s guide in the research, said the fact was previously overlooked and could have potentially leaked modified genes into the environment. In most cases the modified genes would not help the fungus survive. But it can be potentially harmful if, for example, the modified bacteria spread genes that confer pesticide resistance to the fungal pest, Foster noted in the October 27 issue of PLoS ONE.
Andy Bailey, a coresearcher, said the bacteria should be completely removed from GM seeds before they leave the lab and seed companies must ensure this. Biotech companies that produce GM crops claim they treat GM seeds with antibiotics to remove Agrobacterium before releasing the seeds to farmers. Suman Sahai of Gene Campaign, a research and advocacy organisation in Delhi, doubts. “Removing the bacteria from GM seeds with cent per cent accuracy is not possible,” she said.
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/node/2340A BACTERIUM, which the biotech industry uses as a vehicle to insert foreign genes in... more
Oligosaccharides containing a terminal Gal-alpha1,3-Gal moiety are collectively known as alpha-Gal epitopes. alpha-Gal epitopes are integral components of several medical treatments under development, including flu and HIV vaccines as well as cancer treatments.
The difficulty associated with synthesizing the alpha-Gal epitope hinders the development and application of these treatments due to the limited availability and high cost of the alpha-Gal epitope. This work illustrates the development of a whole-cell biocatalyst for synthesizing the alpha-Gal epitope, Gal-alpha1,3-Lac.
Results: Agrobacterium sp.
ATCC 31749 was engineered to produce Gal-alpha1,3-Lac by the introduction of a UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase:alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase fusion enzyme. The engineered Agrobacterium synthesized 0.4 g/L of the alpha-Gal epitope.
Additional metabolic engineering efforts addressed the factors limiting alpha-Gal epitope production, namely the availability of the two substrates, lactose and UDP-glucose. Through expression of a lactose permease, the intracellular lactose concentration increased by 60 to 110%, subsequently leading to an improvement in Gal-alpha1,3-Lac production.
Knockout of the curdlan synthase gene increased UDP-glucose availability by eliminating the consumption of UDP-glucose for synthesis of the curdlan polysaccharide. With these additional engineering efforts, the final engineered strain synthesized approximately 1 g/L of Gal-alpha1,3-Lac.
Conclusions: The Agrobacterium biocatalyst developed in this work synthesizes gram-scale quantities of alpha-Gal epitope and does not require expensive cofactors or permeablization, making it an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production of the alpha-Gal epitope.
Furthermore, the engineered Agrobacterium, with increased lactose uptake and improved UDP-glucose availability, is a promising host for the production of other medically-relevant oligosaccharides.
Author: Anne RuffingRachel Chen
Credits/Source: Microbial Cell Factories 2010, 9:1
http://7thspace.com/headlines/331065/metabolic_engineering_of_agrobacterium_sp_strain_atcc31749_for_production_of_an_alpha_gal_epitope.htmlOligosaccharides containing a terminal Gal-alpha1,3-Gal moiety are collectively known... more
Naturally occuring roses cannot make blue pigment delphinidin
IT’S not royal blue or even sky blue, but blue enough to lay claim to the title of the world’s first blue rose.
Australia’s Gene Technology Regulator has granted a licence to Florigene for commercial release of a genetically modified Hybrid Tea rose which expresses genes for the colour blue.
Naturally occuring roses lack enzymes responsible for the production of the blue pigment delphinidin. The new rose line contains the Flavonoid 3’5’-hydroxylase gene from Viola tricolour and the Anthocyanin 5-acyltransferase gene from Torenia x hybrida, expressed in the epidermal layer of flower petals to cause production of delphinidin pigments.
The GM rose also contains a marker gene for resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics related to kanamycin and neomycin. The GM line is a periclinal chimera so its pollen does not contain the introduced genes.
Regulatory sequences from Cauliflower mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens have also been inserted to control expression of the introduced genes.Naturally occuring roses cannot make blue pigment delphinidin
IT’S not... more
This is no future. But we have the power to change the future and we are. Stand by farmers who grow safe healthy food and who cherish the centuries old tradition of saving seeds. If we allow big ag to have its way their vision of a monculture world for their proft may lead us to worldwide famine, not sustainaibility. Stand up and fight for your right to maintain the closest and most spiritual relationship you have: That with your Earth which provides what keeps you alive.
Say NO to GMO.
This documentary will be featured on the Sustainable Agriculture Channel for the remainder of the weekend.
Please watch it if you haven't seen it, and let it empower you.
Thank you.This is no future. But we have the power to change the future and we are. Stand by... more
National Library of Medicine - Medical Subject Headings
MeSH Descriptor Data
Bonnie Bassler discovered that bacteria "talk" to each other, using a chemical language that lets them coordinate defense and mount attacks. The find has stunning implications for medicine, industry -- and our understanding of ourselves.
Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine
http://www.ted.com/index.php/speakers/bonnie_bassler.htmlBonnie Bassler discovered that bacteria "talk" to each other, using a... more
Agrobacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, delusional parasitosis,. Lyme disease, Morgellons. Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder.........................................
Besides the diseases described above, ticks in different geographic areas may be infected with one or more of the following: Colorado tick fever virus; Mycoplasmas; Powassan encephalitis virus; Q Fever; Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia); tickborne relapsing fever Borrelia; Tularemia (bacteria). The Tick Chart tells where these diseases are found.
It is certain that we have not yet identified all the diseases that ticks carry and transmit. Coinfections complicate diagnosis and treatment and make recovery even more difficult. Doctors may suspect coinfections in patients who do not respond satisfactorily to antibiotics prescribed for Lyme disease.
There are other possible explanations for treatment failures. People with chronic tickborne infections often have a weakened immune response. This allows other opportunistic infections to flourish, such as HHV-6, CMV, and EBV. These diseases are not necessarily carried by ticks but are widespread in the environment. PCR rather than antibody tests should be used to diagnose these infections. Some people may also have exposure to toxic metals. Specialists should evaluate these cases.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrobacterium_tumefaciensAgrobacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, delusional parasitosis,. Lyme disease,... more